The Education Sector Reforms (ESR 2000-2003) included six programs to improve education performance in the areas of access and quality at all levels of the education system.
Since independence in 1947, a variety of documents were developed on National Education Policies as guidelines on access, quality and governance in education sector of Pakistan; National Education Conference (1947) National Education Commission Report (1959) The Education Policy (1972) National Education Policy (1979) National Education Policy (1992) National Education Policy (1998-2010) National Education Policy (2009) […]
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) refers to an interactive form of teaching in which instructional material is presented by computer and the individual’s learning is tracked using a computer. In simple words, CAI is a program of instructional material presented by means of a computer or computer systems. In some other instances, It is a self-learning technique […]
Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is considered as one of the most promising innovations to improve teaching and learning with the help of modern information and communication technology. Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) refers to learning situations mediated by technologies where small groups of 3 to 5 students are exposed to interaction in order to solve […]
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Developments in ICT offer increasing possibilities for collaborative learning. Technology based learning environments can provide advanced means for the production of knowledge and constructive communication, and interactive and collaborative learning in (and between) classrooms and between teachers and learners. CSCL is one such example. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) refers to the activity of […]
Teaching Method A teaching method refers to the set of step by step procedures used by the teacher in guiding the learners to achieve learning objectives. In other words, as applied to classroom setting, a teaching method is a series of related and progressive acts performed by the teacher and the learners to accomplish the […]
Foundations of curriculum are the considerations of educational programs and policies in the light of an interdisciplinary endeavor involving philosophical, psychological, sociological, and historical, understandings. The foundations of curriculum set the external boundaries of the knowledge of curriculum and define what constitutes valid sources from which to derive the field’s theories, principles, and ideas. Curriculum’s […]
Factors affecting curriculum development include philosophical, psychological, societal or social, political, economical, educational, technological and gender factors etc.
Need analysis refers to the the analysis of the learner and the society such as learners’ capacity and ability, aptitudes and potential for learning, motivation, needs, interests and values as well as society’s orientation to nurturing or using the individual gainfully. It also provides a framework of assumptions about emotional, political, cultural, religious and geographical […]
The elements of curriculum would guarantee the success of a curriculum. The elements of curriculum are: objectives, content or subject matter, methods or learning experiences and evaluation.